Muhammad Arifuddin Fitriady, Dieni Mansur, Sabar Pangihutan Simanungkalit


The increasing of energy demand and environment awareness along with
the depletion of fossil fuel imply that the future energy supply must be from the renewable energy source. One of the major renewable energy sources is biomass. Pyrolysis is a rapid decomposition of organic materials in the absence of oxygen resulting in pyrolysis oil, gas, and charcoal products. High water contents and instabilities such as viscosity increase and phase separation are the main problems of pyrolysis oil as a source of useful chemicals. The pyrolysis oil is separated into the oil phase and the pyroligneous acid. The pyroligneous acid contains a lot of chemical substances, that prohibit removal to the environment as a waste due to environmental pollution. Furthermore, pyroligneous acid needs to be treated to obtain the useful chemical. In this study, catalytic reaction of the pyroligneous acid, derived from pyrolysis process of palm kernel shells, was carried out over natural iron ores catalyst at 350 °C with W/F [W: the amount of catalyst bed (g) and F: the flow rate of feed (g h-1)] of 0.5 h. The analysis result showed that iron ores that treated by calcination at 285 °C had a higher ability for ketonization reaction of carboxylic acid compared to other catalysts. Even so, neither calcination up to 500 °C nor steam treatment of natural iron ores can significantly increase the activity of the catalyst for the ketonization reaction even though the BET surface area of the catalyst increased.


Iron ores; Catalytic reaction; Pyroligneous acid; Pyrolysis; Palm kernel shells

Full Text:


Amen-chen, Carlos, Hooshang Pakdel, and Christian Roy. 2001. “Production of Monomeric Phenols by Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass : A Review.” Biore79: 277–99.

BÖRJESSON, P.I.I. 1996. “Emissions of CO2 from Biomass Production and Transportation in Agriculture and Forestry.” Energy Conversion and Management37 (95): 1235–40.

Bridgwater, A V. 2011. “Review of Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass and Product Upgrading.” Biomass and Bioenergy 38. Elsevier Ltd: 68–94. doi:10.1016/j.


Das, Debabrata, and T Nejat Veziroä. 2001. “Hydrogen Production by Biological Processes: A Survey of Literature.” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy26: 13–28.

Demirbas, Ayhan, and Gönenç Arin. 2001. “An Overview of Biomass Pyrolysis.” Energy Source24: 471–82.

Dincer, Ibrahim. 2011. “Green Methods for Hydrogen Production.” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy37 (2). Elsevier Ltd: 1954–71. doi:10.1016/j.ijhydene.2011.03.173.

Elliott, Douglas C, Patrick Biller, Andrew B Ross, Andrew J Schmidt, and

Susanne B Jones. 2015. “Bioresource Technology Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass: Developments from Batch to Continuous Process.” Bioresource Technology178. Elsevier Ltd: 147–56. doi:10.1016/j.


Fumoto, Eri, Yosuke Mizutani, Teruoki Tago, and Takao Masuda. 2006.

“Production of Ketones from Sewage Sludge over Zirconia-Supporting Iron Oxide Catalysts in a Steam Atmosphere.” Applied Catalysis B: Environmental68: 154–59. doi:10.1016/j.apcatb.2006.08.006.

Greenhill-hooper, Michael John, Robert Raja, and John Meurig-Thomas. 2008. “Selective Oxidation of Organic Compounds.” united states. http://patentimages.storage.googleapis.com/pdfs/US20080227984.pdf.

Hyman, D, A Sluiter, D Crocker, D Johnson, J Sluiter, S Black, and C Scarlata Nrel. 2008. Determination of Acid Soluble Lignin Concentration Curve by UV-Vis Spectroscopy. National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

Kalinci, Yildiz, Arif Hepbasli, and Ibrahim Dincer. 2009. “Biomass-Based

Hydrogen Production: A Review and Analysis.” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy34 (21). Elsevier Ltd: 8799–8817. doi:10.1016/j.ijhydene.2009.08.078.

LeValley, Trevor L, Anthony R Richard, and Maohong Fan. 2014. “The Progress in Water Gas Shift and Steam Reforming Hydrogen Production

Technologies - A Review.” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 39 (30). Elsevier Ltd: 16983–0. doi:10.1016/j.ijhydene.2014.08.041.

Loo, A Y, K Jain, and I Darah. 2007. “Food Chemistry Antioxidant and

Radical Scavenging Activities of the Pyroligneous Acid from a Mangrove Plant, Rhizophora Apiculata” 104: 300–307. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.11.048.

Mansur, Dieni, Teruoki Tago, Takao Masuda, and Haznan Abimanyu. 2014. “Conversion of Cacao Pod Husks by Pyrolysis and Catalytic Reaction to Produce Useful Chemicals.” Biomass and Bioenergy66. Elsevier Ltd: 275–85. doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2014.03.065.

Mansur, Dieni, Takuya Yoshikawa, Koyo Norinaga, Jun-ichiro Hayashi, and

Teruoki Tago. 2013. “Production of Ketones from Pyroligneous Acid of Woody Biomass Pyrolysis over an Iron-Oxide Catalyst.” Fuel103. Elsevier Ltd: 130–34. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2011.04.003.

Mathew, Sindhu, Zainul Akmar Zakaria, and Nur Fashya Musa. 2015. “Antioxidant Property and Chemical Profile of Pyroligneous Acid from Pineapple Plant Waste Biomass.” Process Biochemistry50 (11). Elsevier Ltd: 1985–92. doi:10.1016/j.procbio.2015.07.007.

Möbius, Anja, Nikolaos Boukis, Ulrich Galla, and Eckhard Dinjus. 2012. “Gasification of Pyroligneous Acid in Supercritical Water” 94: 395–400. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2011.11.023.

Molino, Antonio, Simeone Chianese, and Dino Musmarra. 2016. “Biomass Gasification Technology : The State of the Art Overview.” Journal of Energy Chemistry25 (1). Elsevier B.V.: 10–25. doi:10.1016/j.jechem.2015.11.005.

Sembiring, Kiky C, Nino Rinaldi, and Sabar P Simanungkalit. 2015. “Bio Oil from Fast Pyrolysis of Empty Fruit Bunch at Various Temperature.” Energy Procedia65. Elsevier B.V.: 162–69. doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2015.01.052.

Shweta, Sharma, and Pratik N Sheth. 2016. “Air – Steam Biomass Gasification: Experiments, Modeling and Simulation.” Energy Conversion and Management110. Elsevier Ltd: 307–18. doi:10.1016/j.enconman.2015.12.030.

Sjaak van, Loo, and Koppejan Jaap, eds. 2008. The Handbook of Biomass

Combustion & Co-Firing. Earthscan. Sluiter, A, B Hames, R Ruiz, C Scarlata, J Sluiter, and D Templeton. 2008. Determination of Ash in Biomass.

Sluiter, A, D Hyman, C Payne, and J Wolfe. 2008. Determination of Insoluble Solids in Pretreated Biomass Material.

Sluiter, A, and J Sluiter. 2008. Determination of Starch in Solid Biomass Samples by HPLC.

Sumanatrakul, Panita, Panita Kongsune, Lakana Chotitham, and Unwena Sukto. 2015. Utilization of Dendrocalamus Asper Backer Bamboo Charcoal and Pyroligneous Acid. Energy Procedia. Vol. 79. Elsevier B.V. doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2015.11.558.

Wei, Qin, Xihan Ma, Zhong Zhao, Shanshan Zhang, and Shengchen Liu. 2010. “Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis Antioxidant Activities and Chemical Profiles of Pyroligneous Acids from Walnut.” Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 88 (2). Elsevier B.V.: 149–54. doi:10.1016/j.jaap.2010.03.008.

Zhang, Qi, Jie Chang, Tiejun Wang, and Ying Xu. 2006. “Upgrading BioOil over Different Solid Catalysts.” Energy & Fuels20 (9): 2717–20.

Zhang, Xiaodong, Laizhi Sun, Lei Chen, Xinping Xie, Baofeng Zhao, Hongyu Si, and Meng Guangfan. 2014. “Comparison of Catalytic Upgrading of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Vapors over CaO and Fe (III)/ CaO Catalysts.” Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis108. Elsevier B.V.: 35–40. doi:10.1016/j.jaap.2014.05.020.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14203/widyariset.2.2.2016.118-130


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016 Widyariset

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Indexed by :